People die annually from cardiovascular and renal diseases due to hypertension. However, the evidence for the association between dairy consumption and hypertension is inconsistent.
This study aimed to assess the association between dairy product consumption and systolic and diastolic blood pressure using multiple linear regression.
Globally, 8.5 million people die yearly from cardiovascular and renal diseases due to hypertension, prehypertension, and other hazardous high blood pressures.
There was a significant increase from 648 million adults with hypertension in 1990 to 1278 million in 2019 despite a stable global age-standardized prevalence of hypertension.
According to data extrapolated from a representative survey of 451,755 adults, 245 million Chinese adults are hypertensive, while 435 million are prehypertensive. Whereas 47% of women were treated with hypertension and 23% controlled it.
Many nutrients are found in dairy products, including protein, calcium, and vitamins, making them among the most commonly consumed foods in the world.
The dairy product group is a heterogeneous food group composed of solid, semi-solid, and liquid foods, fermented and non-fermented, with different fat and sodium content levels.
In addition, the consumption patterns of dairy products vary significantly by country and region. For example, while Europeans consumed an average of 266 grams of dairy products daily, Chinese consumers consumed just 36 grams daily in 2020.
In addition, about 6% of the population in the United States consumed yogurt daily, compared to France, where the majority consumed at least one serving per day.
In a laptop-based questionnaire, scientists collected sociodemographic information (age, gender, education, marital status, and household income) and behavioral lifestyle information (smoking, drinking, physical activity, consuming fresh fruit and meat, sleep duration, snoring, etc.), along with family medical history and women’s menopause status.
Depending on their smoking (and alcohol-drinking) behaviors, participants were divided into four groups:
- Non-smokers (or non-drinkers)
- Former smokers (or former drinkers)
- Occasional smokers (or occasional drinkers)
- Current smokers
Based on transport, occupation, housework, and non-sedentary recreation, experts converted total physical activity into the the metabolic equivalent of daily task hours (MET-hours/day).
At least five minutes before taking measurements, participants were required to refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and exercising. Omron UA-779 digital sphygmomanometer measured blood pressure twice on an unclothed right upper arm, seated position. Scientists took two measurements with a 5-min interval between each.
In cases where the first and second measurements of systolic blood pressure (SBP) differed by more than ten mmHg, Scientists took the third measurement and recorded the two previous measurements. An average of the last two readings was used for analyses.
Prevalent hypertensive individuals were those whose SBP was measured at 140 mmHg. Experts measured their diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at 90 mmHg, their previous doctor’s diagnosis of hypertension, or their use of antihypertensive medication.
What Did The Study Reveal?
A total of 53,916 participants ages 30–79 years were included in the final analysis of the data from the Tongxiang baseline dataset of the China Kadoorie Biobank prospective study.
2.6% of the 53,916 participants consumed dairy products weekly, and 44.4% had prevalent hypertension.
When they compared people to those who never consumed dairy products and when adjusted for sociodemographic status, lifestyle factors, BMI, waist circumference, sleep duration, and snoring.
The odds ratios for hypertension among people who consume dairy products less than once each week and one time per week were 0.85 (0.77–0.95) and 0.74 (0.65–0.84), respectively.
According to this large epidemiological study, people who consume dairy products are significantly less likely to have hypertension.