This review aimed to study the relation between egg consumption and risks of impaired fasting glucose and high BP in Framingham offspring study adults.
In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death, and it has long been believed that eggs may increase CVD risk through dietary cholesterol. Still, this belief is increasingly questionable as time goes on.
There is still no clear understanding of eggs’ role in the evolution of cardiometabolic risk. Still, they provide a significant dietary cholesterol and protein source in the U.S. diet. In addition, high blood pressure (HBP) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) are two key risk factors for the development of CVD.
In one meta-analysis, egg consumption was positively associated with incident type 2 diabetes, while no such association was found in two others. In addition, in some short-term randomized clinical trials, eggs did not negatively affect glucose metabolism in either healthy youngsters/adults or individuals with prevalent T2D.
However, a recent prospective cohort study associated an egg-derived dietary protein diet with a lower risk of high blood pressure in Chinese adults.
Results of The Study
5124 people from the original Framingham Heart Study cohort were enrolled in the Framingham Offspring Study. Participants were generally examined every four years for CVD development and other health outcomes. Participant visits involved completing questionnaires and interviews, taking measurements (e.g., anthropometric measurements, blood pressure), and drawing blood.
The researchers used a three-day dietary record to assess diet. Potential confounders include age, gender, body mass index, and other dietary factors. Cox proportional hazard models and analysis of covariance were used to assess continuous outcomes (FG, SBP, DBP) as well as categorical outcomes (T2D, HBP).
Over four years, higher egg intakes (≥5 eggs per week) were associated with lower mean glucose (p = 0.0004) and serum potassium (p = 0.0284) values, which led to a lower incidence of IFG or type 2 diabetes (T2D) and high blood pressure (HBP).
In conjunction with other healthy dietary patterns, egg consumption had stronger beneficial effects. For example, this study found that regular egg consumption as part of a healthy diet reduced the long-term risk of high blood pressure and diabetes and had long-term benefits on blood pressure and glucose metabolism.
Additionally, moderate egg consumption was associated with lower systolic blood pressure and a significantly reduced risk of incident high blood pressure. These results do not generally indicate that restricting egg intake can reduce glucose or high blood pressure risk in healthy adults.
However, as part of a healthy eating pattern, moderate amounts of eggs may lower the risk of impaired fasting glucose, type 2 diabetes, and high blood pressure.