This study aimed to investigate whether bioactive foods contribute to the prevention of Cystic Fibrosis-related cardiovascular diseases.

Mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene induces cystic fibrosis (CF), the most familiar severe autosomal recessive genetic disease in Caucasians. CF is known to be a multisystem disease with symptoms such as chronic inflammation, recurrent respiratory infections, gastrointestinal disorders, and premature death among its patients.

A person with cystic fibrosis has an integrated chronic multisystem disease that causes progressive organ malfunction, possibly affecting the heart. Traditionally, right ventricular dysfunction was the only CVD seen in people with cystic fibrosis due to end-stage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

As life expectancy improves, it is imperative to understand cardiac involvement in CF to enhance the quality of life, prognosis, and transplant eligibility.

In recent epidemiological studies, it has become more apparent that CF phenotypes can increase cardiovascular risks in adults, especially. In addition, a high-calorie, high-fat diet and various therapies have led to obesity, systemic arterial hypertension, and chronic kidney disease in this age group.

What Did The Research Reveal?

For this study, researchers searched the PubMed database for cystic fibrosis articles (systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, observational studies, series of case studies, and case reports) between the earliest possible dates and October 2022. 

For their review, they selected articles relating to cardiomyopathy, obesity, and nutrition using Medical Subject Headings. Researchers reviewed the titles and abstracts of papers from the last 22 years (1774 articles) and the full text of 827 articles to extract data for their review of 77,270 and 2145 articles. They included 182 relevant citations in their reference list of the papers.

The possibility of preventing/reducing cardiovascular risk in these patients contributes significantly to improving the quality of life and increasing life expectancy in the long term. Until recently, the most frequently encountered association with CF was malnutrition, but there are also cases of CF with obesity, with all the associated risks.

With the advancement of cystic fibrosis (CF) care, patients’ life expectancy and quality of life have significantly improved. By improving lung function and increasing body mass index, they change the natural course of the disease by using a high-calorie, high-fat diet, antibiotics, and new therapies focused on CFTR modulators.

As a result of the increased weight of such patients, several cardiovascular risk factors are associated with them. People with cystic fibrosis experience several of these risk factors. Among these factors are the following:

  • A high-fat diet and increased dietary intake.
  • Altered lipid metabolism.
  • Lowered levels of fat-soluble antioxidants.
  • Increased systemic inflammation.
  • Therapeutic interventions.
  • Diabetes.

For PwCF to maintain a nutritional status as close to the physiological one as possible, they must pay particular attention to their eating habits and food choices. Also, they need nutrition counseling, which is crucial to the disease’s progression and prognosis.

A growing body of proof has shown that many bioactive food components, including phytochemicals, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and antioxidants, are beneficial in managing CF. Another positive effect is the prevention of cardiovascular disease. In the long term, preventing or reducing cardiovascular disease can improve CF patients’ quality of life and life expectancy.

In conclusion, the specialized literature indicates that phytochemicals, including curcumin, quercetin, resveratrol, and allicin, offer a potential new therapeutic path, which has multiple benefits for cystic fibrosis patients and cardiovascular disease prevention.

However, most studies have been conducted on experimental animals; therefore, large clinical trials are necessary for accurately establishing cardioprotective dietary products.

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