Can A Clinical Psychologist Prescribe Medication

A non-contagious global epidemic, Diabetes Mellitus, affects adults in all countries and threatens their lives. It is a disease whose incidence is increasing at alarming rates worldwide. The incidence of the disease increases as technology develops, an inactive lifestyle is adopted, and eating habits change. 

A healthy diet, training, and weight loss or maintaining a healthy weight are recommended as the first step for individuals newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM).

Approximately 425 million people worldwide had diabetes in 2017, and this number could reach 629 million by 2045, according to the International Diabetes Federation.

This study aimed to examine attitudes toward insulin treatment among individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (Type 2 DM) trained according to Pender’s Health Promotion Model. Furthermore, according to Pender’s Health Promotion Model, the study aimed to determine the effect of education provided to patients with Type 2 DM on their metabolic control variables.

A person may experience difficulties adapting to insulin due to these problems, resulting in them not starting treatment, which is referred to in the literature as “psychological insulin resistance.” 

It has been widely studied how individuals with diabetes view the disease. However, very few studies assess individuals’ attitudes toward insulin treatment. Therefore, it is likely that patients with diabetes will benefit from the education provided according to Pender’s Health Promotion Model in terms of diet, treatment compliance, and exercise habits.

A health promotion model by Dr. Nola Pender attempts to explain the motivations for engaging in health-promoting behaviors by emphasizing the interaction between people and their physical and interpersonal environments. 

The model emphasizes the role individuals play in initiating and maintaining health-promoting behaviors and shaping their own environments to support those behaviors. There are three categories of factors that influence health-promoting behavior: “individual characteristics and experiences,” “behavior-specific cognitions and affect,” and “behavioral outcome.”


Sixty-eight individuals with Type 2 diabetes who began insulin treatment were tested using a randomized controlled design in the endocrinology outpatient clinic of a university hospital in Northern Cyprus with a pretest-posttest control group. 

The training content was prepared according to Pender’s Health Promotion Model, and the suitability of the training was ensured by obtaining expert opinions as necessary.

Randomly, individuals were assigned to intervention (n = 34) and control (n = 34) groups. The experimental group received three training sessions and was followed up for three months, and researchers used the Insulin Treatment Appraisal Scale and Patient Enquiry Form.

Researchers obtained informed consent forms from patients, collected data face-to-face, interviewed them, and obtained institutional permission and ethics committee approval to conduct the study. Researchers followed ethical principles in completing the survey.

What Did The Study Reveal?

According to this study, in which Experts offered education according to Pender’s Health Promotion Model, researchers found no significant differences between experimental and control groups regarding sociodemographic characteristics and disease characteristics. Experts found insulin treatment characteristics (p > 0.05) and both groups to be homogeneous.

After three months of training based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model, some metabolic control variables and attitudes toward insulin treatment improved significantly in the experimental group (p > 0.05). 

As a result of the education provided by Pender’s Health Promotion Model, patients developed a positive attitude towards insulin treatment, which makes it an effective and reliable resource.

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