The following serious adverse reactions of lisinopril are discussed in greater detail in other sections:
- Heart failure
- Acute myocardial infarction
As with all adverse effects and drug reactions it is important to talk with a medical professional about any experienced. If someone is experiencing a serious adverse effect talk to a medical professional immediately or call 911.
The following information comes from DailyMed, an FDA-approved website providing drug label information.
WARNING: FETAL TOXICITY
When pregnancy is detected, discontinue lisinopril as soon as possible.
Drugs that act directly on the renin-angiotensin system can cause injury and death to the developing fetus.
Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of lisinopril cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
In clinical trials, patients with hypertension (high blood pressure) treated with lisinopril, 5.7% of patients on lisinopril discontinued due to adverse reactions.
The following adverse reactions (events 2% greater on lisinopril than those taking placebo) were observed with lisinopril alone: headache (by 3.8%), dizziness (by 3.5%), cough (by 2.5%).
In patients with systolic heart failure treated with lisinopril for up to four years, 11% discontinued therapy with adverse reactions. In controlled studies in patients with heart failure, therapy was discontinued in 8.1% of patients treated with lisinopril for 12 weeks, compared to 7.7% of patients treated with placebo for 12 weeks.
The following adverse reactions (events 2% greater on lisinopril than those taking placebo) were observed with lisinopril: hypotension (by 3.8%), chest pain (by 2.1%).
In the two-dose ATLAS trial in heart failure patients, withdrawals due to adverse reactions were not different between the low and high groups, either in the total number of discontinuation (17-18%) or in rare specific reactions (< 1%). The following adverse reactions, mostly related to ACE inhibition, were reported more commonly in the high dose group:
Acute Myocardial Infarction
Patients treated with lisinopril had a higher incidence of hypotension (low blood pressure) (by 5.3%) and renal dysfunction (by 1.3%) compared with patients not taking lisinopril.
Other clinical adverse reactions occurring in 1% or higher of patients with hypertension or heart failure treated with lisinopril in controlled clinical trials and do not appear in other sections of labeling are listed below:
Body as a whole: Fatigue, asthenia, orthostatic effects.
Digestive: Pancreatitis, constipation, flatulence, dry mouth, diarrhea.
Hematologic: Rare cases of bone marrow depression, hemolytic anemia, leukopenia/neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.
Endocrine: Diabetes mellitus, inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.
Skin: Urticaria, alopecia, photosensitivity, erythema, flushing, diaphoresis, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and pruritus.
Special Senses: Visual loss, diplopia, blurred vision, tinnitus, photophobia, taste disturbances, olfactory disturbance.
Miscellaneous: A symptom complex has been reported which may include a positive ANA, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, arthralgia/arthritis, myalgia, fever, vasculitis, eosinophilia, leukocytosis, paresthesia and vertigo. Rash, photosensitivity or other dermatological manifestations may occur alone or in combination with these symptoms.
Clinical Laboratory Test Findings
Serum Potassium: In clinical trials hyperkalemia (serum potassium greater than 5.7 mEq/L) occurred in 2.2% and 4.8% of lisinopril-treated patients with hypertension and heart failure, respectively.
Creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen: Minor increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine, reversible upon discontinuation of therapy, were observed in about 2% of patients with hypertension treated with lisinopril alone. Increases were more common in patients receiving concomitant diuretics and in patients with renal artery stenosis. Reversible minor increases in blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine were observed in 11.6% of patients with heart failure on concomitant diuretic therapy. Frequently, these abnormalities resolved when the dosage of the diuretic was decreased.
Patients with acute myocardial infarction in the GISSI-3 trial treated with lisinopril had a higher (2.4% versus 1.1% in placebo) incidence of renal dysfunction in-hospital and at six weeks (increasing creatinine concentration to over 3 mg/dL or a doubling or more of the baseline serum creatinine concentration).
Hemoglobin and Hematocrit: Small decreases in hemoglobin and hematocrit (mean decreases of approximately 0.4 g% and 1.3 vol%, respectively) occurred frequently in patients treated with lisinopril but were rarely of clinical importance in patients without some other cause of anemia. In clinical trials, less than 0.1% of patients discontinued therapy due to anemia.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of Lisinopril that are not included in other sections of labeling. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Other reactions include:
Metabolism and nutrition disorders
Hyponatremia, cases of hypoglycemia in diabetic patients on oral antidiabetic agents or insulin.
Nervous system and psychiatric disorders
Mood alterations (including depressive symptoms), mental confusion, hallucinations
Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders